A study shows the progressive reduction of Arctic sea frost is bringing colder, snowier winters to the UK and other areas of Europe, North America and China. It's possible that future winters will be colder and snowier, but there are some qualms. But less of the sea is frozen in autumn, it releases more heat, warming the environment. In turn, this reduces the power of the northern jet stream, which usually brings milder, wetter weather to Europe from the west.
Dr Scaife was concerned with another learning published last year that showed how small, normal changes in the Sun's output can also affect winter climate. The novel study is not the first to propose a causal relationship between low Arctic ice in autumn and Europe's winter weather. The researchers also found that the extra evaporation from the Arctic Ocean makes the air more humid, with some of the additional water content falling out as snow.